The Monkey Business of H&M and The Hokey-Pokey of the EFF!


It is fruitless to have debates about whether the H&M advert with a black kid wearing a hoodie saying “coolest monkey in the jungle” is deliberately and intentionally racist or not, writes EBRAHIM FAKIR.

Given centuries of offensive racist tropes associating black people with monkeys ought to have informed the entire chain of product developers, copywriters, marketers and merchandisers at H&M about how offensive that item of clothing on a black kid would be. So the faux pas (it was one) is inexcusable. It justifiably requires a commensurate response. But what would constitute a commensurate (and concomitant) response? Was the EFF’s trashing of several H&M stores around the country, one? Was the EFF’s response either justifiable or commensurate. Was it even consistent with what it claims?

The short answer is no.

The Economic Freedom Fighters’ trashing of the H&M store was a part of an orchestrated, deliberate & sustained campaign of destabilisation, a needless exploitation of emotions on a fictive basis aimed at a fictive enemy wrapped in a display of faux radicalism rather than real and sustained campaign for change.

Let’s contextualise this. This “action” came after a week in which irresponsible calls were made for people to flood higher education institutions after Jacobs Zuma’s reckless and poorly thought out announcement of “free higher education for young people from poor and working class backgrounds”. In a move of understandable caprice, the EFF used this to capitalise on the systemic and policy weaknesses in the lack of institutional and governmental readiness for this policy programme, fomenting instability by adding fuel to an already unstable situation. In addition to the tragedy at the Capricorn TVET College, the UNISA Sunnyside campus is now unstable and as more Higher Education institutions open for the year, greater volatility is likely.

Is this the first time that the EFF’s hand is present in fomenting instability? No. In 2013, soon after the expulsion of Malema from the African National Congress and the formation of the EFF, there was a call to make the mines ungovernable. In 2014, the call was to render Gauteng ungovernable. In 2016 it was the Nelson Mandela Bay Metro, and in 2017, after giving power to what it claims is the “racist DA” in 3 Metros, the EFF decided it was appropriate to stick its nose where it didn’t belong, in the DA’s often messy internal business. All of this, building on the now legendary tactic of “disruption” pursued in parliament, provincial legislatures and local councils that the EFF has become known for.

That the H&M hoodie was distasteful & ill-advised is now near universally recognised. H&M have apologised and retracted the offending image from the web catalogue. But Let’s examine the facts further.
Was a black customer badly treated at an H&M store, refused a purchase? Refused service? Barred entry to a shop? Overcharged for an item, refused as sale or given poor or racist service?


After all these things happen regularly to blacks in South Africa. The demon of racism is deeply rooted and is nowhere more pernicious than it is in our political economy, where more egregious acts of not just capitalist exploitation, but because of South Africa’s peculiar brand of capitalism, racist exploitation (or blacksploitation), yet very little by way of direct action from the EFF is directed and targeted at them. Not after the Marikana massacre. Not after a series of mishaps in our state-owned enterprises. Not after Zuma and the Guptas ransacked the state, nor after mineworkers continue to live lives of squalor on the hovels that are hostels. Not after Shoprite workers were doubly exploited. Not after an errant white farmer killed a black farm worker. Not after the Aurora Mining Systems robbed workers of years of wages and pensions.

H&M became an easy target, where the toxic mix of emotive fiction was visited on inanimate objects devoid of the capacity for reprisal or to effect consequence. This makes for dramatic political theatre, but does it fight racism or effect social change?

Some post-hoc justifications suggest that H&M had what’s coming to it. After all, it and brands like ZARA exploit workers. But we’ve known about this for years and even months, yet there was no action. The H&M advert was placed two weeks ago. An outcry ensued a week later and the EFF “action” followed yet a week later. Why not when the issue broke?

Why a fit of inconsequential pique seven days after the furore of the H&M advert? Or the ignoring of years and months of other racist exploitative practices? This is not to suggest a hierarchy of causes or a “whataboutery” relativism in dealing with racism, sexism, exploitation or other social malpractices. It is to suggest that there is an ethical vacuity and a moral blindness at play in service of a narrow political agenda of destabilisation and instability being pursued by the EFF.

After all, the timing also matters. And it matters a great deal. This action by the EFF, and defences of it, justifies a crude retributive vigilantism. Worse, any criticism of it is met by victimisation and vilification. This is not how a democratic free society operates. More importantly, it makes manifest the narrow political agenda which now becomes clearer. That is, to coincide and detract from the ANC’s 106th birthday celebrations and draw attention away from the ANC president Cyril Ramaphosa’s first January 8 statement on behalf of the ANC.

With Ramaphosa at the helm of the ANC, and the ANC conference concluding with resolutions that destabilise the EFF’s putative policy and political agenda, the EFF fears being rendered irrelevant. Jacob Zuma, a lynchpin of the EFF politics, no longer serves as a source of campaign material for them. All of its policy positions have in part been re-appropriated and recaptured by the ANC, so the EFF is in search of a new agenda.

As Ramaphosa slowly aids the ANC to incrementally clawing back some of its lost credibility, and early signs of a restoration of trust and confidence with the private sector and investors is returning, albeit slowly, this “action” by the EFF appears as a desperate attempt to remain relevant. This after a full seven days of H&M- issuing an apology  and a retraction of the merchandise saying in a statement:
“We have got this wrong and we agree that, even if unintentional, passive or casual racism needs to be eradicated wherever it exists”.

We can’t always take H&M at their word. A sign to which mistrust of corporates has festered. After a series of debacles centred on having only white models, the most recent H&M advert comes at the tail end of the notoriety of several retailers and international fashion houses being exposed for their casual bigotry. The South African private sector and retail space has often been obstinate in its racist attitudes. We have countless examples of estate estates dealing differently with blacks, restaurants, resorts and other places of leisure are frequently exposed for their overt racism and the invisible glass ceiling facing blacks and women in corporate South Africa is all too visible, not to mention the violence visited upon black farm workers or the generally antagonistic social relations amongst different races. Consequently, the demon of overt racism & casual bigotry needed to be dealt with. But was the EFF’s weekend vigilantism justified?

What other ways could have been pursued and what other engagements were possible? For one, a consumer boycott. Its powerful effects have been underestimated, especially where it hurts racist corporates most – at the bottom line. In a progressive constitutional and legal dispensation, in which racism is a crime, the thuggish vigilantism of the EFF is inexcusable where the options for heavy fines are available. But there are even more powerful instruments that act in concert with consumer boycotts. Two further punitive measures are available, through the levying of fines and extracting commitments & prescribing to H&M to creating at least 200 additional jobs guaranteed for two years, or in prescribing minimum reinvestments in the South African economy.

That would be more radical for ALL South Africans. Now, the only conclusion that one is left to draw once all the series of facts, sequence of events are synthesised and assembled, is that this was a desperate search for relevance and profile by the EFF, in which the EFF unleashed its most backward tendencies – wreaking havoc, anarchy, destruction, instability and conflict showing, that this has in fact nothing to do with fighting racism and everything to do with a search for relevance through manipulating sentiments on an otherwise justifiable grievance. It also demonstrates that when genuinely radical solutions are available – demanding furthering investment, forcing job creation for mandatory minimum periods or facing sanctions, or extracting punitive taxes and donations to societal causes – the EFF was nowhere to be found. Instead they were at the forefront of a damaging lawlessness and anarchy, for chasing away rather than attracting investment. This is why such vigilante and destructive tendencies must be condemned. In a time when H&M have conceded their error, greater punitive sanction could have been extracted from them. That is why this was a selfish and destructive act of anarchic & ill-disciplined waste.

In the end, the EFF will be remembered not for defending dignity, but for eroding it, not for enhancing black advancement but for retarding it, for impeding economy and society – not advancing it.

Ebrahim Fakir is Director of Programs at ASRI, the Auwal Socio-economic Research Institute. He serves on the board of directors of Afesis-Corplan and is on the Advisory Council of the Council for the Advancement of South Africa’s Constitution (CASAC).

The views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the editorial policy of The Daily Vox.

Featured image by Mohammed Jameel Abdulla


  1. While it may not have been the most appropriate or ‘civilized’ form of action, the EFF has managed to get the message across. Fashion and other retailers will think thrice before making any similar ‘faux pas’ in future. It may also have succeed in getting H&M to do their homework in order to continue to operate in SA.

  2. The author is not black and I don’t expect him to understand our predicament.
    The only thing that he’s failing to understand is that, we can’t talk forever on government imbizos to entertain him and his white counterpart.
    EFF will make sure that every investor or potential investor knows well that they must never mess up with Africans anymore.
    Action speaks louder than words

    • Besides confirming how lawless and unsafe South Africa is do the EFF for one moment consider the job losses of not 5000 plus individual people but 5500 plus families that are now unable to put food on their table???

    • I think you are confusing ” every investor or potential investor knows well that they must never mess up with Africans anymore.”
      “every investor or potential investor deciding not to invest in Africa at all”
      There are better ways of dealing with these issues. H&M did not create that ad as a racial slur – that was clearly not their intention. It was South Africans who turned it into a racial issue. The question here is – who is messing with Africans – a company who meant absolutely no harm, that was so colour blind it was oblivious to the issue, where the parents of the boy in the advert had no problem with OR a bunch of South Africans who got upset about an advert not even intended for their country over a term they decided was a problem.
      Are you advocating that the word monkey be completely removed from use – from dictionaries, books, films – because that is what this reaction is saying.
      All you are doing here is giving a huge stick for those that would demean you to beat you with – which I don’t understand. When people throw derogatory terms at me the last thing I am going to do is react – I refuse to give the idiot the satisfaction.


    ”That the H&M hoodie was distasteful & ill-advised is now near universally recognised. H&M have apologised and retracted the offending image from the web catalogue. But Let’s examine the facts further.
    Was a black customer badly treated at an H&M store, refused a purchase? Refused service? Barred entry to a shop? Overcharged for an item, refused as sale or given poor or racist service?”

    ”NO”. Shoulld all the above happen for you to realize that it was racist?

    Please tell me Mr/Mrs or Ms write, how should racism be tackled with? If at all your it hasn’t been tried already.

  4. “Given centuries of offensive racist tropes associating black people with monkeys ought to have informed the entire chain of product developers, copywriters, marketers and merchandisers at H&M about how offensive that item of clothing on a black kid would be”

    My view is that outcry and H&M by apologising for the incident has only further entrenched “monkey” as a racist term – which I believe is the wrong call – we need to be doing things to disempower such words and terms.

    Whenever there is a strong reaction to an incident such as this it puts the issue under a microscope.

    There are two options here:
    1. Own the racist term OR
    2. Get owned by them

    This is going to sound contraversial but the only way for us to defeat racism is for the victims of racism to stop giving the racists power. Now, before anyone starts getting hot under the collar and making claims that I am trying to trivialise what has happened to black people in the past – I am most definitely not. What I am saying is the World is what it is. We have bigots from all walks of life, insecure people who are cowards and resort to name calling in an attempt to allay their fears and boost their egos – that is a fact of life. We can rage against them but history has taught us that to beat the bully you have to ignore his taunts and stand up to him.
    Someone who uses derogatory terms is looking for a reaction – when they get a reaction they own you -they have your trigger and they win.
    The key going forward is to remove that power from the bigots – don’t give them the satisfaction of your angry response – demonstrate that you are not equal to them – you are better than they are.
    This is a difficult call as emotions run very deep but as someone who is solution orientated, I take the long view – what is going to get us to higher ground – and I can’t see that emotional outbursts at every potential slight is the way to go.
    Let’s look at the facts here.
    The term monkey has long been used as a term of endearment for children across cultures.
    H&M clearly did not intend this to be a racially motivated advert – it would make no sense on any level for them to have done so.
    The advert was not targeted at SA audiences
    The parents of the boy had no issue with the advert

    In fact one could take the view that H&M was so colour blind that it was oblivious to the potential issues that might arise from the ad – is that not where we want to be as a society?

    How can we get there when every time a term is raised (even when it is not meant in a demeaning fashion) we throw it under the spotlight?

  5. Thanks Mohammed.
    Very well put, But i am sure that this will never be read by the EFF, or it will be manipulated and conjectured to fit their cause. The great pity is that their action will be in the news and a letter like this will be silently scrolling in the back burner of common sense and integrity

  6. @Ebrahim: you’re spot on with this article.

    The logical reaction should be to hit them (and similar) where it hurts most – on their bottom line. However; emotions prevailed – the 1st / natural human reaction for most people, which personally I understand (not condone).

    Perhaps all of us shouldconsider this: generally; the more well-off (financially) any race becomes, the less they’re likely to react to subtle racism because their focus is on economic emancipation (of self & others). However; the less well-off any race remains – which is the frustrated majority here – the more emotional they will react to racism because they only have their dignity to protect, which keeps being stepped on day-in day-out.

    Lets “judge less & know more” about the “why”; then we’ll know why the EFF’s popularity has risen so much in a short period.

  7. Honestly when someone says this was a racist, I just think how dumb. My mother routinely called me and my siblings “little monkeys” as a reference to the fact that kids climb everywhere. It is intent which makes something racist and there is zero evidence this was intended to be used only or especially for black children.

    Ill-advised? Sure… but this is manufactured rage. Rage of choice. The greatest offense is the quality of education for young black families. This is what is worth marching for, worth throwing things for and worth blocking streets for. Not some silly picture.

  8. I also feel the EFF is just using any thing they can to keep the fear of racism alive and well .. and so they hope to gain votes … I am also not sure how destroying a shop translates to economic freedom.. or does eff stand for ‘no economy = freedom’ … these actions of destruction remind me of another political party somewhere back in 1936 ? , Germany ? .. this senseless posturing and ‘beating of ones chest’ demonstration of ‘power’ t really makes me sad and I had hoped that by now people would have learned that violence and destruction mostly achieve very little.. I like most of us want to move forward and better ourselves and stop playing the racial drum for the lack of anything constructive and intelligent to say …. if we carry on like we are … kids will not have to go to school to get a matric …. I dunno … please please can we just move onward and upward ??


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